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US Labor Department's OSHA cites Albany, NY:  contractor for failing to provide cave-in protection at local job site Crisafulli Brothers Plumbing and Heating Contractors faces $50,400 in fines ALBANY: ALBANY, N.Y. – The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration has cited an Albany contractor for allegedly failing to provide cave-in protection for its workers who were repairing a sewer line at 5 Rosemont St. ...more...




US Labor Department's OSHA cites Canton, Mass., contractor for failing to provide cave-in protection at Boston job-site: BRAINTREE, Mass. – The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration has cited Trainor Construction Co. Inc. for alleged willful and serious violations of workplace safety standards at a work site located at 270 Centre St. in Boston at which the Canton, Mass., contractor was replacing a water main. The company faces a total of $29,000 in proposed fines.OSHA's inspection ...more...





US Labor Department's OSHA cites Stoughton, Mass., contractor for failing to provide cave-in protection at Revere, Mass., job-site ANDOVER, Mass.: ANDOVER, Mass. – The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration has cited A.A. Will Corp. $69,300 for alleged willful and repeat violations of workplace safety standards following an inspection of a work site located at the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's Wonderland Station in Revere. The Stoughton contractor was installing electrical vaults in the station's parking lot....more...





US OSHA’s Confined Space Standard: OSHA’s standard for confined spaces (29 CFR 1910.146) contains the requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in general industry from the hazards of entering permit spaces. Employers in general industry must evaluate their workplaces to determine if spaces are permit spaces. (See flow chart, page 5.) If a workplace contains permit spaces, the employer must inform exposed employees of their existence, location and the hazards they pose. This can be done by posting danger signs such as “DANGER—PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE—AUTHORIZED ENTRANTS ONLY” or using an equally effective means....more...





US Confined Space Accidents; A worker for a firm that was retained tosandblast an underground storage tank turned on an electric vacuum to remove the spent abrasive that had accumulated on the tank bottom. A spark from the vacuum cleaner ignited vapors within the tank. He died later as a result of his burns....more...





Oregon OSHA Fact Sheet Permit required Confined Space: The Oregon Occupational Safety and Health general industry standard, 1910.146, is designed to protect workers who enter permit-required confined spaces (permit spaces). Agriculture, construction, and shipyard employment are excluded from this standard, although less-detailed industry-specific standards apply (see Resources). Employers must evaluate the workplace to determine if permit spaces exist. To make that determination, all spaces fitting the confined space definition (see schematic) must be identified. Any hazard within a confined space makes it a permit-required confined space (PRCS). When configuration changes occur or hazards develop, a confined space may need to be reclassified as a permit space ...more...





Canada Confined Spaces – Deadly Spaces: Why are confined spaces deadly? Not enough oxygen, toxic gases, explosions, being trapped crushed or buried...more...





HSE warns employers about the dangers of confined spaces after deaths of two workers: The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is warning employers and staff of the dangers of working in confined spaces, following the prosecution of part of a multinational group after two of its employees died while undertaking routine tasks in a Herefordshire factory....more....





WCB Hazards of confined spaces: The space you are about to enter may have a hatchway that is difficult to squeeze through, and ladders for ascending or descending. You are therefore at risk of falling while getting into the space as well as while you are inside. In addition, the flooring of the tanks or other wet environments or the rungs of a ladder may be very slippery ...more...





WCB Confined Space Entry Program a reference manual: What is the difference between engulfment and entrapment? Engulfment results when a substance, liquid, or solid flows around a person and encloses them, hindering their ability to escape and often making it impossible for them to breathe because they become immersed in the substance. A sudden release of water into a confined space might cause engulfment. A sudden release of sawdust, sand, or grain may also cause engulfment. Entrapment can occur in any space that has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section. Engulfment and entrapment are serious health and safety hazards that require the highest level of standby services, specific controls such as lifelines, and an entry permit...more...





US Entering Confined Spaces: Where the danger lies A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not intended for human occupancy and has a restricted entrance or exit. Confined spaces can be found in almost any workplace and come in all shapes and sizes, from aircraft wings to silos, tanks, and utility vaults. Even a trench can be a confined space under certain conditions....more...





Is working in a confined space hazardous? Many workers are injured and killed each year while working in confined spaces. An estimated 60% of the fatalities have been among the would-be rescuers. A confined space can be more hazardous than regular work spaces for many reasons. To effectively control the risks associated with working in a confined space, a Confined Space Hazard Assessment and Control Program should be implemented for your workplace. Before putting together this program, make sure to review the specific regulations that apply to your workplace. All jurisdictions within Canada have regulations dealing with confined space entry. The regulations can vary slightly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. A contact list for the jurisdictions is available in the OSH Answers document "Canadian Government Departments Responsible for OH&S". More information about the Confined Space Hazard Assessment and Control Program is located in the OSH Answers document "Confined Space – Program"....more...





Confined Spaces Working - Towards Zero Fatalities: The term "confined space" has a wide application throughout industry. In many instances confined spaces are fairly obvious, for example reaction vessels, enclosed tanks, large ducts and sewer pipelines. There are others which are less obvious, yet they are equally as dangerous, for example open topped tanks and vats (particularly where heavier-than-air gases and vapors may be present), closed and unventilated rooms and furnaces/ ovens, in which dangerous accumulations of gases can build up as a result of restricted air circulation. Open spaces have , on occasions, become confined spaces by virtue of the prevailing conditions, aggravated by adverse weather conditions. Examples include; the vicinity of farmyard slurry pits, roof depressions and on top of chimney stacks...more...





NIOSH REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE IN PREVENTING OCCUPATIONAL FATALITIES IN CONFINED SPACES: This Alert requests the assistance of managers, supervisors, and workers in the prevention of deaths that occur in confined spaces. Confined spaces may be encountered in virtually any occupation; therefore, their recognition is the first step in preventing fatalities. Since deaths in confined spaces often occur because the atmosphere is oxygen deficient or toxic, confined spaces should be tested prior to entry and continually monitored. More than 60% of confined space fatalities...more...


What is a confined space?

Confined space refers to an enclosed or partially enclosed area with limited exits. This space is not intended for human occupancy. Short term work orders such as sandblasting may be necessary for maintenance of equipment.... The confined space may range in size from large tanks to small spaces (video). Examples of confined spaces include: silos, tanks, vats, closed unventilated rooms, sumps, vessels, manholes, and underground areas... Air circulation generally is quite poor which increases the risks when working within them.

Is working in a confined space dangerous?

Tragically many workers are injured and/or killed each year while working in confined spaces. Risks include: not enough oxygen, poor ventilation, build up of explosive gases in confined area. The sandblaster/worker could become trapped if collapse occurs making it difficult for rescue workers to assist. Prior to entering any small space there must be safety procedures in place. The worker must be trained and certified in confined space entry. Communication with all working on site is mandatory.

Read on for detailed pdf files from various sources regarding Confined space.

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